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The aliZone.com - Index of Biological, Medical, & Psychological Articles & Essays
The aliZone.com
Index of Biological, Medical, & Psychological Articles & Essays
All my articles are copyrighted and presented here for personal study purposes only. If you want to use my articles for any other purpose, then please contact me first, and remember - plagiarism is a crime against self and society.

Articles are available in PDF format. Click on to view.


Blood pressure Monitoring: A Dying Art or An Important Clinical Skill?

Key nursing skills such as clinical observations monitoring and recording are central to the nursing process and provide basic information about the health and wellbeing of patients. The data produced in the process of clinical observations is essential in the formulation, continual assessment and treatment of individual programmes of care in all nursing disciplines, and nowhere is this more evident than in the discipline of blood pressure monitoring and recording. This skill is relevant to nursing because the initial measurement of blood pressure enables a base line to be determined, and monitoring thereafter enables a nurse to anticipate when the patient may be experiencing physiological problems, either naturally, or as a result of medical interventions.


A Qualitative research study into Disgust.

Disgust is the least researched and perhaps the least understood of all the six basic emotions. This qualitative assignment aimed to explore the meanings behind the disgust emotion, and to discover how, and to what extent, changing life roles and experiences affect disgust sensitivity. A single participant was chosen from amongst the researchers friends and family. A Semi-structured open-ended interview was conducted and the data obtained from the resulting transcription was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The following Higher order themes were identified: Modifiers of disgust sensitivity, Types of disgust reactions, Disgust precipitators, and Alternatives to Disgust. It was noted that the participants disgust schema was being modified by both internal and external mechanisms and this modification was explored within a mediation-moderation framework with the aid of a disgust schema flowchart. Emotional ties and location were identified as moderating variables, whilst open-mindedness, rationalisation of disgust precipitators, and life experiences, combined with individual and cultural norms, were identified as mediating variables. Limitations of the research was identified and future directions for research was suggested.


Construal Biases in Gender Stereotype Research.

Gender stereotypical attitudes and behaviours can be defined as those attitudes and behaviours that are considered to meet both cultural and social norms for each sex, and which promote psychological masculinity and femininity by highlighting the differences between the sexes whilst ignoring the similarities, and re-enforce the range of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviours for men and women (Spence & Helmreich, 1978; Kaplan & Sedney, 1980).

Taking a partly historical perspective, this paper briefly describes some of the major methods used in the research of these stereotypical differences, suggesting that research into what is, in effect a social construct, will ultimately suffer from construal bias from both researchers and participants, and in the wider arena, both publishers and readers, due to widely held or strong opinions of psychological sex differences, not necessarily based on scientific evidence (Eckes & Trautner, 2000; Hines, 2004). An integrative perspective is called for and future methodological directions are outlined.


Six Hypothetical Questions.

Note: This article is available on request to qualified therapists only.
'Six Hypothetical Questions' is a holistic, person-centred technique I have devised which can aid the therapist in exploring LGBT clients' gender & sex issues. Identity is explored by highlighting two areas, personal inner identity and social outer identity, through the mediators of sexual identity and sexuality. The thought processes that the client goes through in order to answer the six questions may result in severe distress and initial increased identity confusion, and therefore therapists should ensure that the client has adequate psychological support whilst undergoing this treatment technique.

Deconstructing Gender: A Bio-Socio-Developmental Perspective.

There are many frameworks or perspectives from in which gender can be deconstructed, for example sociological, political, biological and feminist, and numerous motivations for so doing. Each framework however, when taken in isolation, ignores the contribution to gender of other processes. This article takes a Bio-Socio-Developmental perspective to the deconstruction of gender, recognising that gender is affected by, and a culmination of, biological, social, and developmental forces - a complex series of connections between the body, society, and self.

This article details the deconstruction of gender into a five dimensional model with 96 component parts. The resulting matrix may be used to aid individual self-exploration, gender self-congruence, and overall self-actualisation. Such a framework may also be used as a basis for psychological and social research into gender, and it is suggested that model presented is open to modification and further division as required.


A critical evaluation of humanistic psychology and its effectiveness in explaining human behaviour.

Whereas History seek to answer the questions who and when, Psychology concerns itself with finding out why. Why do we behave as we do? What motivates us? What controls us? Throughout history many people, for example astrologists, anatomists, and philosophers, have tried to understand and give reasons for behaviour, both in humans and other animals.

Our self-awareness and perceptions in the scientific study of the most complex object known to man, the mind, have resulted in “a range of approaches which differ in terms of their basic assumptions, their methods and their theoretical structures” (Glassman, 2000, 4). Humanism, with its focus on free will and self esteem, and how humans are influenced by conscious choices and internal needs, is the approach that I intend to critique in this assignment with specific emphasis on Rogers, Maslow, and May.


A Practical Investigation into the Craik & Lockhart (1972) Theory of Levels Of Processing In Human Memory.

In order to investigate Craik and Lockhart’s (1972) Theory of Levels of processing, Craik and Tulving’s (1975) experiments were used as a framework for this practical investigation. The Hypotheses were that the level at which an event is coded in the cognitive system determines later recall and recognition for that event. Two groups of 13 participants, an opportunity sample and a cluster sample, were required to recall words (iv) that had been processed at a structural, phonetic, and semantic level from a 30 question paper (dv) that had been answered prior to attempting a maths question. The data collected was analysed and the results of the Wilcoxon (T) statistical test for difference showed that all three one tailed hypotheses were supported. The performance of the two sample groups was then compared with the aid of both the summary of results and box plots. It was discovered that the performance of the Cluster Sample was superior to that of the Opportunity Sample due to the high demand characteristics within the Cluster Sample which was composed of psychology students.